Friday, 20 April 2018


            He was born in Loshits (Losice), Shedlets (Siedlce) region, Poland.  He studied in religious elementary school.  He left for Warsaw and became a knitter.  In late 1939 he escaped to Minsk.  In 1943 he fled from the Minsk ghetto to join the partisans.  In 1946 he came to Paris.  In book form: Fun geto in di velder (From the ghetto to the woods) (Paris: Oyfsnay, 1975), 217 pp., which also appeared in French in 1979.

Source: B. Grin, in Morgn-frayhayt (New York) (February 29, 1979).

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 406.


KHAYIM SLOVES (HENRI SLOVÈS) (June 19, 1905-1988)
            He was born in Bialystok, Russian Poland, to a father who was a leather worker and who later took up business.  He studied in a “cheder metukan” (improved religious elementary school), in a Russian and a German school, and later in a secular Jewish public school; he also attended pedagogical courses in Bialystok.  He was in addition a student in the Warsaw “Free High School.”  From his earliest childhood years, he had an interest in theater, would organize pageants with groups of children in the courtyard of their residence, and would put together theatrical evenings with pupils from the Jewish public school, for which he served as director and lead actor, and the repertoire consisted largely of plays that he put together on his own.  His first works for the stage were a dramatized chapter from Mendele’s Fishke der krumer (Fishke the lame), later his own drama in one and one-half acts and a four-act play in blank verse—A shvere operatsye (A difficult operation), which was directed by Dovid Herman.  He was a cofounder of a theater society, “Association of Young Lovers of the Arts” in Bialystok.  In 1920 he marched on foot with the retreating Red Army from Poland to Russia, was in Minsk, Smolensk, and Moscow, later returned to Poland, was active in the underground revolutionary work of the left, spent time in Polish prisons, and endured hunger strikes.  He subsequently continued his studies in the Jewish pedagogical courses and was later a teacher in Jewish public schools.  In 1926 he immigrated to France, settled in Paris, studied (1927-1929) at the Lyceum “Charlemagne” there, and went on to study (1929-1934) at the Sorbonne where he received his doctor of law degree.  Over the years 1935-1938, he published three books in French concerning international law and modern history.  In 1936 he was secretary of the organizing committee of the first World Jewish Culture Congress in Paris, and as the secretary of the then founded IKUF (Jewish Cultural Association), he visited the Baltic states (autumn 1938) and Belgium, Holland, and England (spring 1939).  Under Nazi rule in France (1940-1944), he lived for a time in Vichy, later near Lyons, where he was active in the French-Jewish resistance movement and wrote articles for illegal Yiddish and French publications.  After the liberation of France, he returned to Paris, was a contributor to French periodicals, and published plays and articles concerned with various Jewish cultural issues in: Naye prese (New press), Oyfsnay (Afresh), and Unzer eynikeyt (Our unity), among others, in Paris; Yidishe kultur (Jewish culture), Morgn-frayhayt (Morning freedom), and Zamlungen (Collections)—in New York; and Yidishe shriftn (Yiddish writings) and Folks-shtime (Voice of the people) in Warsaw.  He also contributed to Yiddish publications in Latin America and in the state of Israel.  Among his drama and folk plays, Homens mapole (Hamen’s downfall), Di yoynes un der valfish (The Jonahs and the whale), Di tsayt fun gezang (The time of song), Nekome-nemer (Avengers), and Borekh fun amsterdam (Baruch from Amsterdam) were staged in Yiddish theaters in France, Sweden, Poland, Romania, Israel, South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and New York.  His one-act play Der ksav fun rekht af links (Writing from right to left) was performed in French, Spanish, and Portuguese.  In 1958 he and the Parisian writers M. Vilner and A. Yudin visited Moscow with the mission there of “investigating the state of Jewish culture,” and their report, “Vegn der yidisher kultur in sovetn-farband” (On Jewish culture in the Soviet Union)—published in 1959 in Yidishe kultur in New York and Unzer eynikeyt in Paris and republished by the World Jewish Congress in Paris—elicited a discussion in Unzer eynikeyt (August-September 1959), as well as various polemical commentaries in the Yiddish and Hebrew press.  Together with Sh. Dobzhinski, he also published and edited (1958) a quarterly journal in French entitled Domaine yidich (The field of Yiddish) with the goal of acquainted the assimilated Jewish youth in France with writings in Yiddish, Yiddish literature, and Yiddish culture.  In book form: Nekome-nemer, a tragedy in three acts and nine scenes (Paris: Oyfsnay, 1947), 94 pp. (winner of a prize from the Moshe Kasner Fund in Buenos Aires); Homens mapole, a folk play in four acts (Paris: Oyfsnay, 1949), 103 pp.; Di yoynes un di valfish, a folk play in three acts (Paris: Oyfsnay, 1952), 117 pp. (also winner of a prize from the Moshe Kasner Fund); Borekh fun Amsterdam, a drama in four acts and nine scenes (New York: IKUF, 1956), 112 pp., second edition with text in Yiddish and Polish, in three acts (Warsaw: Yiddish State Theater, 1961); Der ksav fun rekht af links, in Yidish kultur (New York) 3 (1954); Di milkhome fun got (The war of God), a drama in three acts (New York: IKUF, 1963), 107 pp.; Tsen brider zaynen mir gevezn, drame in dray aktn (We were ten brothers, a drama in three acts) (Paris: Oyfsnay, 1965), 133 pp., earlier published in Yidishe kultur; Sovetishe yidishe melukhishkeyt (Soviet Yiddish nationalism) (Paris, 1979), 265 pp., Hebrew translation as Mamlakhtiyut yehudit beverit hamoatsot (Tel Aviv: Am oved, 1981), 223 pp.; A shlikhes keyn moskve (Messenger to Moscow) (New York, 1985), 302 pp.  His work also appeared in: Itshe Goldberg, ed., Undzer dramaturgye, leyenbukh in der yidisher drame (Our playwriting, textbook in Yiddish drama) (New York: IKUF, 1961), pp. 501-512.  In 1960 he received the Shatsov Prize from IKUF and in 1963 the Zhitlovsky Prize—both in New York.  He visited the United States in 1962 and appeared at various IKUF undertakings.  He died in Paris.

Sources: Zalmen Zilbertsvayg, Leksikon fun yidishn teater (Handbook of the Yiddish theater), vol. 4 (New York, 1963), with a bibliography; D. Klementinovski, in Byalistoker shtime (New York) (March-April 1946); Y. Mestel, in Yidishe kultur (New York) (April 1948; October 1956); Sh. Lastik, in Yidishe shriftn (Warsaw) (October 1949); B. Mark, in Yidishe shriftn (October 1954); D. Sfard, Shtudyes un skitsn (Studies and sketches) (Warsaw, 1955), pp. 169-75; Z. Vaynper, in Yidishe kultur (December 1956); M. Litvin, in Parizer tsaytshrift (Paris) 15-16 (1956); Dr. Shloyme Bikl, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (November 3, 1957); L. Domenkevitsh, in Unzer vort (Paris) 88 (3059); Lili Berger, in Yidishe shriftn (February 1958); Berger, Eseyen un skitsn (Essays and skits) (Warsaw, 1962), pp. 182-90; Avrom Shulman, in Der veker (New York) (June 1, 1958); Shulman, in Forverts (New York) (April 6, 1959); Kh. Liberman, in Forverts (June 6, 1958); L. Bernard, B. Shlevin, M. Melman, Kh. Shoten, in Unzer eynikeyt (Paris) (August-September 1959); Ḥ. Knaan, in Haarets (Tel Aviv) (August 28, 1959); Sh. L. Shnayderman, in Forverts (December 2, 1959); I. Goldberg, ed., Undzer dramaturgye, leyenbukh in der yidisher drame (Our playwriting, textbook in Yiddish drama) (New York: IKUF, 1961), pp. 499-512; Kh. Sloves, “Vegn zikh un vegn mayn shafn” (On me and my work), Yidishe kultur (November 1961); Sh. Belis, in Folks-shtime (Warsaw) (January 6, 1962); R. Yuklson, in Morgn-frayhayt (New York) (May 16, 1962); N. Mayzil, Tsurikblikn un perspektivn (Retrospectives and perspectives) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1962), see index; Biblyografye fun yidishe bikher vegn khurbn un gvure (Bibliography of Yiddish books concerning the Holocaust and heroism) (New York, 1962), see index; “Pyese fun kh. sloves af der frantseyzisher bine” (Plays by Kh. Sloves on the French stage), Unzer kiem (Paris) (June 1964); M. Lerman, in Arbeter-vort (Paris) (May 8, 1964).
Benyomen Elis

[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 406.]

Thursday, 19 April 2018


            He was born in Zgierzh (Zgierz), near Lodz, Poland.  He was the son of the Agudat Yisrael deputy in the Polish parliament, Eliezer Sirkin.  He studied in religious elementary school and yeshivas and with private tutors.  From his youth he was active in the Orthodox youth movement and one of its first leaders who defended pioneering in the land of Israel.  In 1933 he settled in Israel.  He founded Hassidic agricultural colonies.  His first poems were published in the anthology Unzer traybkraft (Our motor force) (Lodz, 1926), and from that time on he contributed to: Der flaker (The flare), Der yudisher arbayter (The Jewish worker), Beys-yankev zhurnal (Beys-Yankev journal), and Unzer lebn (Our life) of which he was also editor—all in Lodz; Der yud (The Jew), Dos yudishe togblat (The Jewish daily newspaper), Ortodoksishe yugnt-bleter (Orthodox youth pages), Darkhenu (Our way), and Deglanu (Our banner), among others, in Warsaw; Dos vort (The word) in Vilna; and Hamodia (The herald) and Shaarim (Gates) in Israel; among others.  In book form (listed under P. A. Sirski): Gilgulim, khasidishe drame in dray aktn (Metamorphoses, a Hassidic drama in three acts) (Pietrkov, 1929), 144 pp.  He was last living in Jerusalem, an official in the Knesset.

Sources: Khayim Leyb Fuks, in Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) (March 15, 1929); Fuks, in Nayer folksblat (Lodz) (Maych 12, 1930); Fuks, in Fun noentn over (New York) 3 (1957), see index; information from Y. Fridenzon in New York.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


NAKHMEN SIRKIN (NACHMAN SYRKIN) (February 11, 1867[1]-September 6, 1924)
            He was born in Mohilyev (Mahilyow, Mogilev), Byelorussia, into a prominent family.  He studied with teachers in the home, private tutors, and at the Mogilev high school.  In the early 1880s he moved with his parents to Minsk, where he graduated from high school in 1884.  At this time he was a proficient in Talmud and in medieval and general Hebrew literature; he belonged to Ḥoveve-tsiyon” (Lovers of Zion) circles, and in the group discussions he already demonstrated his volatile temperament and great erudition.  For his proximity to socialist groups, he spent several weeks under arrest in Minsk and was freed thanks to the intercession of his relative, the Minsk community leader and Hebrew writer Grigori Yakovlevich Sirkin.  In 1887 he departed for Berlin and there he began to study medicine, later turning to philosophy and political economy at Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität.  He went on to receive his doctoral degree in philosophy from Zurich University.  In the late 1880s, when the Russian universities were closed to Jewish youth, there assembled in Berlin (a considerable number of) Jewish students, and Syrkin—together with other Palestinophiles—founded the “Russian Jewish Scholarly Association,” which became a national center for Jewish youth and intellectuals at the time and to which many important Zionist figures brought their national aspirations, such as: Chaim Weizmann, Shmaryahu Levin, Isadore Eliashev (later known as Bal-Makhshoves), and Leon Motzkin, among others.  Syrkin was one of the first to link Zionism with the socialist world view, though he fought against the materialist conception of history and constructed everything on the doctrine of voluntarism.  He tried to justify his scientific-philosophical consciousness at that time in his German work, Geschichtsphilosophische Betrachtungen (Historical-philosophical considerations) (Berlin: F. Gottheiner, 1896), in which he came to the conclusion that it was not circumstances that controlled a person, but the person who endeavors all the more to liberate himself from the power of circumstances and through this comes to his own “I”: “History,” wrote Syrkin, “has no plan and no laws; it is a free design of individuals.”  He remained faithful to these ideas over the course of all his activities as one of the founders and ideologues of the Jewish national radical movement.  At the first Zionist congress in Basel (1897), he stood with political Zionism (under the influence of Moses Hess, in whose name he had created a Zionist socialist group).  In 1898 he published in the German periodical Deutsche Worte (German word), brought out in Vienna by Engelbert Pernerstorfer, the Social Democratic deputy in the Austrian Reichsrat (Imperial Diet), an article on the Jewish question—that same year he published it under the pen name “Ben-Eliezer”—in Berne in pamphlet format under the title Die Judenfrage und der sozialistische Judenstaat (The Jewish question and the socialist Jewish state), 67 pp.—in which he strove to justify Zionism from a socialist standpoint.  He also expressed his main thoughts on socialist Zionism in his Russian-language pamphlet Vozzvanie k evreiskoi molodezhi (Appeal to Jewish youth) (London, 1901), 16 pp.  Syrkin believed that all the values that Jews have created in the diaspora were of a negative character and that remaining in the lands of the diaspora has a deleterious impact not only on the Jews themselves but also on all human progress.  Assimilation of Jews with the surrounding peoples also creates the same negative values, and thus assimilation can only be realized by the upper bourgeois strata of Jewry.  The Zionist movement of the democratic layers is, thus, a reaction against the international aspirations of the Jewish bourgeoisie—and its ultimate goal is the construction of a socialist state in the land of Israel.  The sole bearer of the Jewish national liberation movement was—according to Syrkin—the Jewish “hamon” (masses), the toiling masses of the Jewish people, and not only the industrial proletariat.  Around 1901-1902, Syrkin founded the Zionist socialist group “erut” (Freedom), which, in addition to other tasks, was to fight against Jewish plutocracy.  The group erut had an influence only within the narrow circles of Jewish intellectuals in Zurich, London, and especially Berlin, but in Russia itself one heard practically nothing of it.  For a theoretical treatment of the issues of the Zionist socialist program and tactics, Syrkin founded the periodicals Der hamoyn (The masses) in Yiddish and Hashaar (The morning) in Hebrew in Berlin (1903), for which he wrote almost the entirety of its articles (also under the pseudonym of Ben-Eliezer).  At the sixth Zionist congress in 1903, he joined the Ugandists, and at the seventh congress (1905) in Basel when the “no” votes were victorious, he was one of the founders of the territorialist organization, and then joined the newly established Zionist Socialist Party.  According to the memoirs of his daughter Marie Syrkin, he was deported from Germany at this time for participating in 1904 in a political demonstration.  He lived for a time, 1904-1905, in Paris, before returning to Russia, living primarily in Vilna, where he contributed (and co-edited) the organ of the Zionist socialist party, Der nayer veg (The new path), writing editorials and theoretical essays.  At the time of the elections to the second Duma, he stood as a candidate from Kovno province, but he was not elected.  At the invitation of the American socialist-territorialists, he traveled to the United States (March 1908) to edit Dos folk (The people), organ of the Zionist socialists.  Syrkin later became disappointed with territorialism and in 1909 became one of the leaders of Labor Zionism in America.  During WWI he supported the Allies and, contrary to the majority of American Jews, Russia—against Germany.  He was also the head of the American Jewish Congress movement.  As a delegate to the conference of the Jewish Congress in Philadelphia (December 1918), he—with Morris Winchevsky, Louis Marshall, Stephen Wise, and others—was elected onto a delegation to defend the resolutions of the American Jewish Congress at the Peace Conference in Versailles.  He took part (1919) in the world conference of Labor Zionism in Stockholm.  He was in the land of Israel (January-May 1920), and on his way back to America he visited Warsaw; in 1923 he was in Carlsbad at the thirteenth Zionist congress.  Syrkin contributed to many different American Yiddish periodicals, such as: Di tsukunft (The future), Dos naye land (The new land), Dos naye leben (The new life), and from the founding of Tog (Day) he was a regular contributor to the newspaper with a one and one-half year break when he was writing for the Labor Zionist daily newspaper, Di tsayt (The times).  At different times he also wrote for Jewish and general newspapers in Russian, German, and English, as well as in Hebrew publications in the United States.  Among other items, he translated into German the moral philosophical writings of Lev Tolstoy in Jüdisch-Deutsche Monatshefte (German Jewish monthly) in 1911, a critique of the moral searchings of the Russian Doukhovors.  As Zalmen Reyzen put it:

Syrkin was one of the most original figures in the Jewish radical national movement.  For the entire time of his thirty years of literary and community activities, he sought a synthesis between Zionism and socialism, and with a rare temperament and great polemical talent, though with much utopianism and metaphysics, he led a fight for his ideals….  In connection with Yiddish, he was a bitter enemy not only of the Yiddishist movement, but even of the Yiddish language, against which he would appear in public in the fiercest manner in the name of his burning love of Hebrew, the language of the prophet Isaiah whom he believed was the greatest person in world history.  Characteristic of his views of the language question was his long article “Der zhurnal” (The journal) in Yud (Jew) 30-47 (1900), in which he introduced not only a series of anti-Yiddishist proofs, but also provided an interesting analysis of the linguistic and psychological character of the Germanic and Hebraic elements in the Yiddish language.  In his territorialist period, he also turned aside from Hebraism, so as later to return to his harshest, uncompromising form (see his series of articles concerning Yiddish and Hebrew in the monthly Dos naye leben in New York [1923], edited by Chaim Zhitlovsky and Shmuel Niger).  For him spiritual Judaism was just as important as the living, concrete entity, and herein derived his negation of the diaspora, his fantastic optimism, his utopian dreams, and lastly a certain religious mysticism (although one of the publications of his organ of erut, Der hamoyn, was, to be sure, the struggle against religion).  In his personal life, he excelled in his idealism, magnanimity, and naïveté, and was one of the most interesting personalities in New York’s Jewish Bohemia.

A magnificent, distinctive journalist, Syrkin also acquired a reputation throughout the Jewish world as a great speaker at lecture venues, meetings, conferences, and congresses in various countries.  At different times, Syrkin placed work in Russian, German, and English journals and newspapers.  For a time he contributed correspondence pieces and features to Hamelits (The advocate).  He also wrote at varying times for: Der hamoyn and Hashaar in Berlin (1903); Nayer veg (New path), Dos vort (The word), and Unzer veg (Our way) in Vilna; Der yud (The Jew) in Warsaw; Arbeter vort (Workers’ word) in Cracow; Dos folk (which he edited in 1908), Idisher kemfer (Jewish fighter [co-editor in 1909]), Dos naye land, Dos vort, Di varhayt (The truth), Dos yudishe folk (The Jewish people), Di tsayt, Di tsukunft, and Der idisher kongres (The Jewish congress), among others, in New York; and Folks-tsaytung (People’s newspaper) in Montreal (1912); among others.  He published his travel impressions of the land of Israel in Kuntres (Pamphlet) in Israel.  He was a regular contributor to Tog in New York, from the time the newspaper was founded.
            Among his published books: Die Judenfrage und der sozialistische Judenstaat (1898); Empfindung und Vorstellung (Sensation and imagination) (Berne: Scheitlin Spring, 1903), 86 pp.; Idisher kongres in amerike (Jewish Congress in America) (New York: Jewish National Workers’ Alliance, 1915), 24 + 2 pp.; translation of Moses Hess, Roym un yerusholayim, iberzetsung un ophandlung vegn moyshe hes, zayn lebn, zayn virkung un zayn filozofye (Rome and Jerusalem [original: Rom und Jerusalem], translation and assessment of Moses Hess, his life, his impact, and his philosophy) (New York: M. N. Mayzel, 1916), 233 pp.; Natsyonale frayhayṭ un internatsyonale eynheyt, tsu der frage vegn natsyonalizm un internatsyonalizm (National freedom and international unity, on the question of nationalism and internationalism) (New York: Jewish National Workers’ Alliance, 1917), 63 pp.; Geklibene tsienistish-sotsialistishe shriftn (Selected Zionist-socialist writings), 2 vols., ed. Yude Koyfman, Y. Zak, and Yoyel Entin (New York: Central Committee, Labor Zionists, 1925-1926), 632 pp. (combined), with a biography and characterization of Syrkin written by Y. Zak (both volumes contain essays and a series of treatments of philosophy and Jewish history entitled “Epokhn in der idisher geshikhte” (Epochs in Jewish history) on which Syrkin worked over the last years of his life and left unfinished; Kitve naman sirkin (Writings of Nachman Syrkin), comp. and arranged by Berl Katznelson (Tel Aviv: Davar, 1939), 308 pp.; Di yidn-frage un di yidishe sotsyalistishe medine (The Jewish question and the Jewish socialist state), translated from the Hebrew by Ruvn Matis (Munich, 1947), 55 pp. [translation of his Die Judenfrage und der sozialistische Judenstaat].  Syrkin translated a significant number of writings by Leo Tolstoy for German periodicals.  He also composed (1909) a five-act tragedy, entitled “Dos yidishe folk” (The Jewish people), in which he brought out a gallery of representatives of all the Jewish parties.  He also wrote a foreword to Heine’s eight volumes of poetry, which were translated into Yiddish by a host of well-known Jewish poets: Di ṿerk fun haynrikh hayne, mit a biografye fun a. kalisher un a forvorṭ fun n. sirkin (The works of Heinrich Heine, with a biography by A. Kalisher and a foreword by N. Syrkin) (New York, 1918).  He also authored the preface to Moyshe Freilicoff’s Dzhuzepa matsini, denker un bafreyer (Giuseppe Mazzini, thinker and liberator) (Washington, D.C.: erut, 1924).  His essays also appeared in the autobiographical volume by his daughter Marie Syrkin, which she published about her father in English: Nachman Syrkin, Socialist Zionist: A Biographical Memoir (New York : Herzl Press and Sharon Books, 1961).  Streets have been named for Syrkin in Tel Aviv and other cities in the state of Israel.  There is a settlement named Kfar Sirkin (Kefar Syrkin) near Petaḥ Tikva.  Nachmen Syrkin died in New York.  His grave has been located since September 1951 in the Galilee, near the Kineret.  As B. Tsukerman stated:

He continued his literary activities for over thirty-five years in both speech and writing.  He expressed his thoughts in an era of a great spiritual revolution in Jewish history.  He formulated them in blunt language, as he was almost always at war with other Jewish personalities of his generation and virtually all organized Jewish groups from that time.  Even the movement that he established could not always go along with his characteristic bluntness.…  Syrkin’s central idea, it would seem, might be formulated as follows: all creative peoples of mankind have a portion in human culture.  Each people bring, by virtue of their creative distinctiveness, a brick to the building of world culture.  The Jewish people possess a special cultural treasure which enriches its own life and enable it to contribute a great gift to the culture of mankind.  The principal foundations of the Jewish cultural treasure are: social justice and human sanctity.  To assure its cultural treasure and enrich with it, the Jewish people must lead an independent life in their own country.  Along this pathway of ideas two goals emerge: worry about basic existence of the Jewish people and erecting a Jewish state on the basis of social justice and human sanctity.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2, with a bibliography; Morris Winchevsky, “editorial notices,” Di tsukunft (New York) (December 1908); B. Tsvien, “Teritoryalizm oder avanturizm” (Territorialism or adventurism), Di tsukunft (July 1909); M. Zametkin, in Di tsukunft (August 1909); N. Grinblat, in Hatekufa (Moscow) 1 (1918), pp. 656-64; H. Leivick, in Di tsayt (New York) (September 6, 1920); V. Grosman, in Di tsukunft (October 1920); Y. Milkh, Naye bavegungen baym hign idishn proletaryat (New movements among the local Jewish proletariat) (New York, 1920), pp. 147-208; Kh. Liberman, “Di toesn fun di groyse” (The errors of the great), Di tsayt (March 25, 1921); Chaim Zhitlovsky, in Di tsayt (April 16, 1921; April 23, 1921; May 2, 1921; May 3, 1921; September 27, 1921); A. Lyesin, in Di tsukunft (July 1921; August 1921); M. Ribalov, in Hadoar (New York) (September 12, 1924); Ribalov, Sefer hamasot (Book of essays) (New York, 1928), pp. 221-23; A. Revutski, in Di tsukunft (October 1924); Y. Kopelyor, Amol un shpeter (Once and later) (Vilna: Altnay, 1932); Shmuel Niger, in Di tsukunft (August 1933); Marie Syrkin, “Zikhroynes vegn mayn foter” (Memories of my father), Idisher kemfer (New York) (September 7, 1934); M. Syrkin, in Pyonern-froy (New York) (October 1951); M. Syrkin, Nachman Syrkin, Socialist Zionist: A Biographical Memoir (New York : Herzl Press and Sharon Books, 1961), 332 pp.; Moyshe Shtarkman, in Yorbukh (New York) (1942/1943); Shtarkman, in Hadoar (New York) (Sivan 4 [= May 23], 1947); Sh. Grodzenski, in Idisher kemfer (September 29, 1944); Y. Khaykin, Yidishe bleter in amerike (Yiddish newspapers in America) (New York, 1946), see index; M. Regalski, Tsvishn tsvey velt-milkhomes (Between two world wars) (Buenos Aires, 1946); G. Bader, in Morgn-zhurnal (New York) (March 14, 1948); Y. Zar, in Morgn-zhurnal (September 23, 1949); Borekh Tsukerman, in Der tog (New York) (October 1, 1949); Tsukerman, in Idisher kemfer (October 5, 1954; October 15, 1954; October 22, 1954; November 23, 1962; Rosh Hashanah issue, 1963; Tsukerman, in Afn veg (On the road) (New York, 1956), pp. 59-118; A. Leyeles, in Der tog (September 8, 1951); Arn Tsaytlin, in Der tog (June 1, 1952); A. B. in Unzer tsayt (New York) (September 1952); Sh. Levenberg, in Unzer vort (Paris) (September 25, 1954); L. Shpizman, in Geshikhte fun der tsienistisher arbeter-bavegung fun tsofn-amerike (History of the Zionist labor movement in North America) (New York, 1955), see index; Shpizman, in Idisher kemfer (Rosh Hashanah issue, 1956); Shpizman, in Geshtaltn (Images) (Buenos Aires, 1962), pp. 85-90; Kh. Sh. Kazdan, Fun kheyder un shkoles biz tsisho (From religious and secular primary schools to Tsisho) (Mexico City, 1956), see index; B. Y. Byalostotski, Kholem un var (Dream and reality) (New York, 1956), pp. 376-80; Zalman Shazar, Or ishim (Light of personalities) (Tel Aviv, 1955), pp. 217-32, part 2 (Jerusalem, 1963/1964), pp. 11-22; Shazar, in Moledet lanoar velaam (1963/1964), pp. 312-14; D. Perski, in Hadoar (February 10, 1956); Y. Cohen, Gesharim, ishim uveayot bitenuat haavoda (Personalities and problems in the labor movement) (Tel Aviv, 1955); M. Freylikov, in Idisher kemfer (March 23, 1956); A. Kritshmar-Yizraeli, in Idisher kemfer (March 23, 1956; August 21, 1959); Y. Grinboym, Fun mayn dor (Of my generation) (Tel Aviv, 1959), pp. 287-89; M. Braun, Mit yidishe oygn (With Jewish eyes) (New York, 1958), pp. 261-62; Y. Kruk, in Hapoel hatsayir (Tel Aviv) (eshvan 4 [= October 29], 1957); B. Sherman, in Idisher kemfer (Passover issue, 1958; May 12, 1961); Kalmen Marmor, Mayn lebns-geshikhte (My life story) (New York, 1959), vol. 1, p. 388, vol. 2 (1959), p. 674; D. Tidhar, in Entsiklopedyah lealutse hayishuv uvonav (Encyclopedia of the pioneers and builders of the yishuv), vol. 10 (Tel Aviv, 1959), see index; B. Katsnelson, Oysgeveylte shriftn (Selected writings) (Tel Aviv, n.d.); Y. Klausner, Opozitsya lehertsl (Opposition to Herzl) (Jerusalem, 1959/1960), see index; Klausner, in Hahistadrut yehuda haafshit (Tel Aviv) (Nisan [= March-April] 1961), p. 186; Rael Yanait-Ben-Zvi, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (August 19, 1961); Y. Zerubavl, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (English column) (March 10, 1964; March 11, 1964; March 12, 1964); Marie Syrkin,
Benyomen Elis

[1] According to Miriam Sirkin (Marie Syrkin), he was born on February 12, 1868.

Monday, 16 April 2018


NOKHUM-MOYSHE SIRKIN (1878-December 24, 1918)
           He was born in Byelsk (Bielsk), Grodno district, at the time part of Russia.  He received a Jewish education at home, also attended a Russian high school, later graduating from the Warsaw Polytechnic as a technical engineer.  At the latter school he founded a corporation of nationally minded students—running counter to the assimilationist majority of students in the school.  He belonged to a circle of Yiddish and Hebrew writers in Warsaw and was a frequent visitor at the homes of Nokhum Sokolov and Y. L. Perets, especially Sokolov who engaged Sirkin to contribute to Hatsfira (The siren), in which Sirkin from time to time (from 1897) published articles, such as: a long essay, “An effort at a theoretical justification for Zionism,” which at the time aroused great interest among the readership.  With the rise of political Zionism, he became active in the movement, contributed much to Zionist congresses as a delegate and also as the correspondent from Hatsfira.  An outstanding speaker, he led a Zionist campaign principally among intellectual youth.  Under the influence of Y. L. Perets, he became an advocate of Yiddish, and at Zionist meetings and conferences he fought for Yiddish and against the truculence of the Hebraists.  Aside from his role with Hatsfira, he published numerous articles in Sefer hashana (Yearbook), as well as with the Russian Jewish Budushchnost’ (The future), Spektor’s Di naye velt (The new world) in Warsaw, and Sokolov’s Telegraf (Telegraph), of which he was in fact editor (1905-1907).  In 1907 he settled in Kiev, where he conducted intensive work on behalf of Yiddish and Yiddish literature, and his speeches, permeated with enthusiastic love for Yiddish works, exerted a huge impact on Jewish youth then engaged in their studies.  He also published a series of notices on Jewish writers in the Russian Jewish Evreiskaia entsiklopediya (Jewish encyclopedia).  He published as well popular scientific articles in the Russian journals: Vestnik sakharnaia promyshlennost’ (Herald of the sugar industry) and Vodnoe delo (Water treatment) (1910), among others.  In the years of WWI, he stood out as a political leader, was elected to the Ukrainian Rada (Parliament) and to Jewish national council in Ukraine, and he became chairman of the democratic Jewish community in Kiev, while at the same time writing journalistic articles in the Zionist weekly Af der vakh (On guard), edited by M. Grosman (ten issues appeared, from March 15 until August 9, 1918) and editing the daily newspaper Der telegraf (forty-nine issues, from November 15, 1917 to January 1918).  He authored the pamphlets: In der frayer ukraine (In Ukraine of the past), “remarks, facts, and materials” (Kiev: Farn folk, 1917), 16 pp.; Dos naye lebn un di alte knekht (The new life and the old slave) (Kiev, 1917), 9-16 pp. (reprinted from Der telegraf, prospectus); Tsi zenen  mir hefker? (Are we without order?) (Kiev, 1917), 9 pp.  He was one of the few exceptions who in Zionist-Hebraist circles did not stop fighting for Yiddish and who appreciated the Yiddish word.  He was also beloved by Ukrainian intellectuals.  He died in Kiev.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2, with a bibliography; Y. Grinboym, Fun mayn dor (Of my generation) (Tel Aviv, 1959), pp. 250-56; Chone Shmeruk, comp., Pirsumim yehudiim babrit-hamoatsot, 1917-1961 (Jewish publications in the Soviet Union, 1917-1961) (Jerusalem, 1961), see index.
Benyomen Elis


MORTKHE-ZEV SIROTA (b. July 12, 1895)
            He was born in Bialystok, the son of a Russian and Yiddish teacher.  He studied in religious elementary school and yeshivas, while at the same time also acquiring a secular education.  He contributed to the lively newspapers of the Fareynikte (United [socialist parties]), led by Yankev Pat, and “Yidishe kunst” (Jewish art), led by Peysekh Kaplan.  In late 1919 when Peysekh Kaplan established in Bialystok Dos naye leben (The new life), Sirota became a contributor to the editorial board of the newspaper, and he was in charge of the local division and placed feature pieces, economic surveys, and translations from the Polish and Russian press in the paper.  Together with M. Visotski and Y. G. Shteynsapir, in 1925 he was editing the daily newspaper Byalistoker kuryer (Bialystok courier) which last eight months, and was then brought back to work for Dos naye leben where he worked until 1926.  He later departed for Paris, from whence he corresponded for Dos naye leben and from time to time also wrote for the Paris-based Unzer vort (Our word), Haynt (Today), and Morgnblat (Morning newspaper).  He published memoirs in Byalistoker shtime (Voice of Bialystok) in New York.  He also wrote under the pen name “M. S-to.”  He was last living in Paris.

Sources: Byalistoker leksikon (Bialystok handbook) (Bialystok, 1935); Byalistoker album (Bialystok album) (New York, 1951); Byalistoker shtime (New York) (March-April 1953); S. Kahan, in Byalistoker shtime (March-April 1961).
Yankev Kahan


YOYSEF SIKOLER (SIKULER) (1907-October 1954)
            He was born in Ludmir (Volodymyr Volyns’kyi; Pol., Włodzimierz), Poland.  He studied law at Vilna University.  He was active in student circles and lectured on philosophical and social themes.  He composed poetry in Yiddish and Hebrew.  During WWII he was a refugee in Soviet Russia, and there he contracted a severe lung ailment.  In 1952 he made aliya to the state of Israel and died two years later.  “In his poems he expresses,” wrote Mortkhe Kroshnits, “the terrible sufferings of a man whose fate sentences him to many years glued to his sick bed and waiting inevitable death….  But in the darkness of extinguished life’s light, he finds comfort and hope in the divine light that shines for him and rules his entire being.”  His biography and a selection of his poetry were published in the anthology Haifa, yorbukh far literatur un kunst (Haifa, yearbook for literature and art), edited by Mortkhe Kroshnits and Dovid Radin (Haifa: Haifa division of the Yiddish writers’ and journalists’ association, 1963), pp. 141-50.


            A poetess, she was born in Berdichev, Ukriane.  She lost her parents early on and was raised in the Berdichev Jewish children’s home.  There she composed her first poems.  After moving to Moscow, she worked as a proofreader for the newspaper Der emes (The truth), later becoming a librarian at the Moscow Jewish club “Komunist” (Communist).  She wrote for the press, in her last years for the journal Sovetish heymland (Soviet homeland).

Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), p. 264.


RUVN HAKOYEN SINAI (1850-March 31, 1918)
            The father of Mikhl Hakoyen Sinai, he was born in Yagustova (Augustów), Suwalk district, Lithuania.  His father, Arn Sinai, was well-known as a great scholar in the city; when he died (Ruvn was then only five years old), the family moved to Grodno.  Ruvn attended religious elementary school, later studying with the Kovno rabbi, R. Yitskhok Elkhonen, and from him received ordination into the rabbinate.  He, though, had no wish to be a rabbi, and instead he became a private Hebrew teacher in Grodno.  For a certain period of time, he lived in Zabludove (Zabłudów).  He traveled through Russia (1876-1877) as an agent of Rodkinson’s publications: Hakol (The voice) and Asefat akhamim (Assembly of wise men)—both in Hebrew—and Kol laam (The people’s voice) in Yiddish.  In 1894 he and his family moved with the first group of Jewish colonists to Argentina in Baron Hirsch’s colony of Mozesville, and there he became the religious and cultural leader for the colonists.  A sharp conflict ensued between the Mozesville colonists and the YIKO directors in Buenos Aires, and Sinai with a delegation of colonists traveled to Paris to YIKO headquarters to seek justice.  The complaints of the delegation had no impact, and as a result Sinai and his family moved in late 1897 away from Mozesville and settled in Buenos Aires.  There the Eastern European Jewish asked him to become their rabbi; he accepted the invitation but wished to receive no remuneration—he earned his living from teaching the wealthier children in his own home.  Already in Grodno, Ruvn Sinai was a community leader, one of the main players in the Ḥibat tsiyon (Love of Zion) movement and founder of the municipal group “Safa berura” (Plain language).  Through his initiative the first Talmud Torah was founded in Argentina.  His first essays in Hebrew, written back in the old country, were published in: Hamagid (The preacher), Hakol, and Hamelits (The advocate), among others.  He used the pen name Mr”s (Mes ruvn sinai [from Ruvn Sinai]) when publishing in Rodkinson’s Kol laam.  From Argentina he also wrote for London’s Hebrew weekly Hayehudi (The Jew), published by Yitsak Subelski, and for Jerusalem’s rabbinical Hapisga (The summit).  He also contributed to his son’s printed newspaper Videlkol (Echo), to Vermont’s Di folks shtime (The people’s voice), to Volf Tsaytlin’s Idish argentiner vokhenblat (Jewish Argentinian weekly newspaper), and to the first daily Yiddish newspaper in Argentina, Der tog (The day)—for a certain period of time he was the unofficial editor of this newspaper.  He was also the author of: Zikaron moshe (Memory of Moses), a funeral oration for Baron Hirsch (London, 1897) and aye hazeman vehanitsa (Temporal and eternal life) (Buenos Aires: V. Tsaytlin, 1901).  He left behind in manuscript a historical essay in Hebrew entitled “Korot hayehudim beargentina” (History of the Jews in Argentina).  His son, Mikhl Sinai, handed the manuscript over to Zalmen Reyzen (when Reyzen visited Argentina in 1932) with the authority to publish it in the confused YIVO publication about the Jews of Argentina, but nothing came of it, and in the years of the Holocaust, the manuscript was lost.  Ruvn Sinai died in Buenos Aires.

Sources: Sh. L. Tsitron, “Letoldot haitonut haivrit” (On the history of the Hebrew press), Haolam (Vilna); Mikhl Hakoyen Sinai, in Argentiner yivo-shriftn (Buenos Aires) 3 (1945); Sinai, in Grodner opklangen (Buenos Aires) 3-4 (1950); he is often mentioned in articles about his son, Mikhl Hakoyen Sinai.


MIKHL HAKOYEN SINAI (MIGUEL J. SINAY) (December 3, 1877-August 8, 1956)
            The son of Ruvn Hakoyen Sinai, he was born in Grodno, then part of Russia.  At age three he moved with his parents to Zabludove (Zabłudów), near Bialystok, where he studied in religious elementary school, and at home he studied Tanakh, Hebrew grammar, and Talmud with his father.  Ten years later, he and his family returned to Grodno, and there he studied in the yeshiva and in the municipal Russian school.  At the time he was reading books on his father’s shelf, and the first volume in Yiddish to come into his hands was Mortkhe Spektor’s anthology Der hoyz-fraynd (The house-friend).  From reading this, he gained a great eagerness to write and with friends he brought out several issues of a printed Hebrew leaflet: Hanitsanim (The buds).  In 1894 the Sinai family was brought by YIKO (Jewish Cultural Organization) to the Mozesville colony in Argentina.  In 1896 he became a teacher in the first Mozesville YIKO school; the next year his family moved to Buenos Aires (see the biography for Ruvn Hakoyen Sinai).  In 1896 he published in St. Petersburg’s Hamelits (The advocate) a correspondence piece concerning the life of colonists in Mozesville and two similar correspondence pieces in Di yudishe gazetten (The Jewish gazette) in New York.  In 1898 the twenty-one-year-old Sinai published the first Yiddish newspaper in Argentina.  This was to be a weekly and was called Der viderkol (The echo).  The first issue appeared on March 8, 1898 (Adar 14).  The entire newspaper, four pages in large newspaper format, he printed by hand and then allowed it to be lithographed (there were no Jewish publishing houses in Argentina at the time).  The work was hard labor, as he described it: “Like the black slaves or like those arrested and held in the stockades of Siberia, I labored over the newspaper day and night, and I sat stooped over the writing desk, not allowing out of my hand the pen for so much as half a second to catch my breath.”  Thus, Sinai brought out four issues—only three went for sale; the fourth was printed but Sinai lacked the strength to lithograph it, as he lay in bed ill.  That year (1898) he edited the weekly newspaper Der kolonist (The colonist)—twelve issues—and Argentina came into possession at the time of its own Yiddish type.  He later again took up teaching, worked for a time in a business, even for a while as a peddler.  In 1908 he was living in Rosario and, together with Yitskhok Drapkin, he edited and published the biweekly Der veker (The alarm)—eight issues.  In 1911, together with Hillel Davidovitsh (pen name of Tsvi Shkolnik), he published (with Herman Krasilovski) the one-off work Dos peyekh-blat (Passover sheet).  He lived in Rosario until 1917, again taking up teaching, served as secretary of the local “Asociación Israelita” (Jewish association).  In 1913 he edited there the newspaper Foterland (Fatherland)—only one issue.  From Rosario he was led out to the Pampa, to a town called Bernasconi, where he lived for thirteen years, after which he lived in the city of Corrientes and from there once again to Bernasconi, then to Coronel Suárez, Tucuman, and again to the Pampa, to a town called Villa-Alba (present-day San Martín).  Thereafter he cut through all of Argentina’s length and width, wrote, taught children and turned his attention to cultural and Zionist work.  In 1945 he gave up teaching and took a position in the Argentinian division of YIVO in Buenos Aires.  His main work there consisted of managing the archive of the community.  His work appeared in sixty publications (mostly in Argentina)—in Yiddish, Hebrew, and Spanish.  The most important of his published works were: “Di antshteyung un di antiviklung funem yidishn gedruktn vort in argentine” (The rise and development of the published Yiddish word in Argentina), Der shpigl (The mirror) (May 18, 1834; June 17, 1934; June 28, 1934; July 28, 1934; August 10, 1934); “Mit fuftsik yor tsurik” (Fifty years ago), Der shpigl (beginning May 25, 1944 in thirty installments); “Tsu der geshikhte fun yidishn gedrukte vort in argentine” (On the history of the published Yiddish word in Argentina), Di idishe tsaytung (The Jewish newspaper) (tenth year jubilee issue, Buenos Aires, 1924); “Der baginen fun unzer yishev” (The dawn of our community), Yorbukh (Yearbook) (Buenos Aires, 1945-1946); “Di ershte yidishe korbones in mozesvil” (The first Jewish victims in Mozesville), in Argentiner yivo-shriftn (Argentinian YIVO writings) 4 (1947); “Di batsiung fun yidishe foters tsu der kinder-dertsiung” (The connection between Jewish fathers and their children’s education), Di idishe tsaytung (October 10, 1935; October 20, 1935; October 29, 1935); “Vi azoy zoln mir dertsien undzere kinder” (How are we to raise our children), Rozaryer lebn (Rosario life) (July 26, 1939); and the like.  Sinai was also the author of two booklets: Gam zo letova (Just as well), sketches (Buenos Aires, 1919), 36 pp.; and Baleydikt a mes (A corpse is offended), a story (Buenos Aires, 1920), 48 pp.—both published by “Bikhlekh far yedn” (Booklets for everyone).  In the first issue of Viderkol, there is an article entitled “Di inkvizitsyon” (The Inquisition): a description of the large courtyards of poverty in Buenos Aires, where Jewish colonists stayed, people who had fled from Mozesville’s valley of tears.  In both this description as well as in everything that he wrote over the course of several decades, Sinai fought against the YIKO elite in the Jewish colonization in Argentina.  “Do you know what a newspaper is supposed to do?” responded Sinai to a reader in the mailbox section of Viderkol. “To fight for the truth, not to give in to flattery, particularly to rip off the mask from anyone who is dishonorable, vile, or corrupt, and also to stand up for the lonely, the oppressed, and the stifled.”  Sinai carried these very pure ideals through a long career.  His great service for the Yiddish press in Argentina lay not only in the fact that he was the first to produce the published Yiddish word there, but also in that he spoke true, punishing, consoling words.  He was for ten years the editor of Grodner opklangen (Grodno echoes).  He also wrote under such pseudonyms as: Smakh, Khirik, M. H. S., M. Skibelski, A Lerer, Sekhem, A Higer, and Oyker-Horim.  He died in Buenos Aires.  His son Ruvn Sinai (named for Mikhl Sinai’s father) was an important Spanish-language poet.  He wrote an excellent Yiddsh as well and was a contributor to the Buenos Aires Yiddish newspaper Haynt (Today).

Sinai’s identity card (signed Miguel José Sinay)

            “Sinai came to the published Yiddish word in Argentina,” wrote Sh. Rozhanski, “as a fine people’s teacher and remained as such his entire life….  Teaching and finding a popular register also became the tone of his writing.  With idealism he spread love of the Yiddish word.  As a teacher in YIKO schools and other educational institutions in various cities and towns of the Argentine provinces,…Sinai always considered his writing articles and stories, just as his giving public lectures (largely about Yiddish literature and education), as a gift, a contribution, that he was obliged to pay as a debt.”  “He wrote a great deal,” noted M. Bursuk, “and he wanted to write even more, when he found himself among a circle of friends who encouraged him….  By nature he possessed nothing less than a juicy and folkish language, and if in the first years he used a great many Germanisms, this was under the influence of A. Vermont and Y Liakhovitski who believed that the more German expressions one inserted into Yiddish, the more literary it would become….  Not once did Sinai recount this as a curiosity from a bygone era….  The last thirteen or fourteen years, he was employed by the YIVO archive.  A fitting person for a fitting place, because what Sinai lacked in writing, he had in memory—he truly enjoyed his work at YIVO, and he considered the Scientific Institute [YIVO] to be a second home, and he thus spent all his time there.”

Sources: Sh. Kneyfel, in Penemer un penemlekh (Buenos Aires) 306 (1929); M. Shalman, in Rozaryer lebn (Rosario), special edition (1931); Y. L. Gruzman, in Der shpigl (Buenos Aires) (May 1, 1938); Sh. Rozhanski, Dos yidishe gedrukte vort in argentina (The published Yiddish word in Argentina) (Buenos Aires, 1941), vol. 1, pp. 9-10, 20-21, 28, 36, 40-41, 90, 122, 138, 150; Rozhanski, in Mikhl hakoyen sinai (Mikhl Hakoyen Sinai), on his seventieth birthday (Buenos Aires, 1947), 16 pp.; Volf Bresler, Antologye fun der yidisher literatur in argentine (Anthology of Jewish literature in Argentina) (Buenos Aires, 1944), p. 921; P. Kats, Geklibene shriftn (Selected writings), vol. 5 (Buenos Aires, 1946), pp. 5-13, 17-27; longer appreciations of Sinai on his seventieth birthday (publ. December 1947) in Di idishe tsaytung, Di prese, Der veg, Rozaryer lebn, Der shpigl, Ikuf, Argentiner beymelekh, and elsewhere; M. H. S., “Vegn mayn eygener veynikheyt” (On my own modesty), Grodner opklangen (Buenos Aires) 3-4 (1950); D. Gorskin, Zikhroynes vegn sante izabel (Memoirs of Santa Isabel) (Buenos Aires, 1951), p. 113; Yorbukh tshy”d fun der yidishe kehile in buenos-ayres (Yearbook for 1953/1954 for the Jewish community of Buenos Aires) (Buenos Aires, 1954), p. 113; Yorbukh tsht”v fun der yidishe kehile in buenos-ayres (Yearbook for 1954/1955 for the Jewish community of Buenos Aires) (Buenos Aires, 1955), p. 288; Y. Botoshanski, in Algemeyne entsiklopedye (General encyclopedia), “Yidn 5” (New York, 1957), p. 375; N. Vital, in Dos yidishe vort (Buenos Aires) (December 13, 1957); Sasha, “A shtik yidish-argentiner geshikhte” (A bit of Argentinian Jewish history), Landsmanshaftn (Buenos Aires) (September 1958); Davke (Buenos Aires) 35 (September 1958); R. Flekhner, “Tsum ondenk fun tsvey pyonern” (To the memory of two pioneers), Ikuf (Buenos Aires) (May-October 1958); B. Grin, in Morgn-frayhayt (New York) (January 25, 1959); M. Bursuk, in Kolonist-kooperator (Buenos Aires) (December 1963), pp. 5-7.
Yankev Birnboym

Sunday, 15 April 2018


            He was born in Vilkovishki (Vilkaviškis), Suvalk district, Lithuania, into a family which drew its pedigree back to R. Tuvim-Margolin, author of Sipure yeshurun (Stories of Jerusalem).  His father was a baker, but also a scholar.  He studied in religious elementary school, and later acquired secular subject matter through self-study.  At age fifteen he became a brush maker and joined the Bund.  He was a cofounder of the bush union.  In 1905 at the time of the first Russian Revolution, he was arrested, and he later fled to Switzerland, took part in the sixth conference of the Bund as well as in the work of the Bund’s foreign committee, while at the same time studying at the University of Berne.  He graduated in 1909 from the law faculty and in 1911 from the philosophy department and received his doctoral degree for a dissertation, entitled Die Anfänge der sozialistischen Bewegung unter den russischen Juden (The beginning of the socialist movement among Russian Jews), a portion of which (92 pp.) appeared in book form in German (Berne, 1912).  His second doctoral work, on Adam Smith and Karl Marx, appeared in 1913 in German (Berne, ca. 200 pp.).  He contributed to the daily newspapers of the Bund, Der veker (The alarm) and Di folkstsaytung (The people’s newspaper) in Vilna (1905-1907), and to the legal and illegal Bundist publications in Yiddish and Russian.  In 1914 he moved to the United States, where he ran a factory making bird cages.  He also placed articles and essays in Di tsukunft (The future) in New York, in which he published: “Dos internatsyonale rekht” (International rights), “Krigs-kontroband un di prayz-gerikht” (War contraband and price law), “Lasal als yurist” (Lassalle as a jurist) of 1914, “A lig fun natsyonen” (A league of nations) of 1919—concerned with international law—“Der bund un zayn badaytung af der idisher gas” The Bund and its significance on the Jewish street), “Der id un di rushishe revolutsye” (The Jew and the Russian Revolution), “Vladimir medem, der revolutsyoner un der shriftshteler” (Vladimir Medem, the revolutionary and the writer) of 1923, and “Di rusishe revolutsye, di bolshevikes” (The Russian Revolution, the Bolsheviks) of May-October 1938.  In the collection Karl marks, zayn leben, zayn virken un zayne lehren, 1818-1918 (Karl Marx, his life, his impact, and his teachings, 1818-1918), edited by Tsvien (New York, 1918), pp. 113-26, he published the piece, “Karl marks als publitsist” (Karl Marx as a journalist).  He also published articles in: Der fraynd (The friend) and Unzer tsayt (Out time) in New York, among them: “Der bershter-bund” (The brush union) in Unzer tsayt (July 1941).  He died in New York.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2; Y. Yeshurin, in Unzer tsayt (New York) (May 1943); F. Kurski, Gezamlte shriftn (Collected writings) (New York, 1952), pp. 137, 167, 356.
Khayim Leyb Fuks

Friday, 13 April 2018


ARN SINGALOVSKI (1889-October 7, 1956)
            Also known by the pen name Arn Tshenstokhover, he was born in or around Lenin, near Mozir (Mozyrsky Uyezd), Byelorussia, into a well-off family.  In his youth he lived in Kovno, where he prepared to enter high school.  There he became attracted to Zionism and published a hectographically produced leaflet Hatsiyoni (The Zionist).  At the time of the first Russian Revolution (1905), he was exceedingly popular (under the name: Arn Tshenstokhover) as one of the finest speakers in the Zionist Socialist Party.  He also wrote for the newspapers that served as organs for the party.  In 1909 he left for Germany, where he completed his degree in law, and he later studied in Switzerland and received a second doctoral degree in philosophy.  In the university cities of Germany and Switzerland, he was one of the leaders of the Jewish national radical movement, and he gave speeches on various social and political themes, as well as on Yiddish literature.  He wrote for Fraynd (Friend), later Dos leben (The life), as well as in Russian and other non-Jewish newspapers and periodicals.  He wrote articles about Jewish student youth and feature pieces on the trends toward assimilation among Jewish students.  He was one of the leaders of the Zurich conference of Eastern European Jewish students and one of the founders of the so-called “Zurich Association.”  He also wrote for general German and German-Jewish periodicals on cultural and social issues and on Yiddish literature.  In 1919 he was editor of the first Yiddish weekly newspaper in Berlin, Der fraytog (Friday)—among its contributors were Dr. Zeligman, Dr. Harash, Zalmen Shneur, and Shmaryahu (Shemarye) Gorelik, among others.  He fought in the German press against the persecution of Eastern European Jews by both the government and the official German-Jewish institutions.  In 1921 Dr. Singalovski was lured to administrative work for ORT (Association for the Promotion of Skilled Trades).  He then assumed his new activities as a life mission.  He became the great practitioner of the idea of moving Jews without any fixed employment into constructive labor.  He visited numerous Jewish communities in Europe, America, Soviet Russia, and South Africa.  In various countries, he established technical schools, workshops, and the like for Jewish youth and for adults.  He edited the ORT journal Di erdarbet (Agriculture).  He published the pamphlets: Di farshpreytung fun melukhe un erd-arbeyt tsvishn yidn (The distribution of trades and agriculture among Jews) (Berlin: ORT, 1921), 42 pp.; Tsentraler “ort” institut tsum oysbildn fakhshul-instruktorn un onfirndikn administrativn personal (Central “ORT” institute for educating trade school instructors and managing administrative personnel) (Geneva, 1946)—Yiddish, 13 pp., English, 10 pp.; among other works.  His articles were spread through many different periodicals in various and sundry countries.  He was one of the finest speakers among the Jewish people.  He enchanted his listeners with what he was not supposed to speak about.  He died in Paris and was buried in Switzerland, close to Geneva.  As A. Glants-Leyeles wrote of him:

He was an extraordinarily gifted and effective speaker.  His speaking ability was evinced very early on, when he was still a boy of roughly eighteen or nineteen.  At that time in the former Tsarist empire, he was a member of the [Zionist] Socialist Party, and he aroused Jewish laborers with the strength of his oratory.  At that time (1906-1908), his party was a major force among the awakened Jewish cobblers, tailors, furriers, as well as the yeshiva boys, business employees, and others….  The Zionist Socialists were indebted to a great extent for their influence and impact to the considerable number of intellectuals who were counted among the leading figures in the party.  From these intellectuals, over the course of time, there emerged theorists, leaders, creators in a whole range of fields—literature, history, science, social economics—in all branches of our multifaceted culture….  Arn Singalovski was one of the fruitful and creative personalities.  A cultured man, a community leader, speaker and writer of more than ordinary caliber.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2; Y. N. Shteynberg, in Frayland (Paris) (April 1955); V. Grosman, Amol un haynt (Then and now) (Paris, 1955), p. 102; A. Glants-Leyeles, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (October 10, 1956); Dr. L. Zhitnitski, in Di prese (Buenos Aires) (October 11, 1956); “Troyer-tseremonye in pariz” (Mourning ceremony in Paris), Unzer shtime (Paris) (October 11, 1956); M. Regalski, in Folksblat (Montevideo) (October 16, 1956); Yizker (Remembrance), published on the first anniversary of the death of Dr. A. Singalovski (Geneva, 1957), 20 pp.; Y. Klinov, in Kehilat lenin sefer zikaron (Book of remembrance for the Jewish community of Lenin) (Tel Aviv, 1957), pp. 192-93; Z. Khabotski, in Afn shvel (New York) (January-February 1957); R. Federman, in Kultur un dertsiung (New York) (November 1956); Federman, in in the anthology Tshenstokhov (Częstochowa) (New York, 1958), pp. 139-40.
Yankev Birnboym